Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of rice is now used in many laboratories worldwide. The grains are long, slender and dark coloured. To improve the yield potential of japonica rice, inter-subspecific crosses between indica and japonica have been conducted by rice breeders conventionally . Data on various growth and yield parameters revealed that Koshihikari was the tallest (117 cm) and Nipponbare the shortest one (102 cm). Due to the diversity of rice varieties and cropping systems in China, the limitation of seeding density and seedling quality makes it hard to improve machine-transplanted efficiency. Oryza sativa is a major food crop in Asia. O. rufipogon, a type of wild rice, is recognized as the direct progenitor of cultivated rice based on a comprehensive data set obtained from genomic sequences of 446 geographically diverse wild rice accessions and 1,083 cultivated indica and japonica varieties (Huang et al., 2012b). Improved rice varieties for temperate rice environments Japonica varieties are typically grown in the temperate regions of Asia, Africa and Latin America. Both the Indica and Japonica type have red rice varieties. Wild rice is not an actual rice variety, but a grass. Black japonica is an aromatic, 100% whole grain rice with a dark black bran. The effects were studied of various carbohydrates and osmotic stress, created by high agarose or carbohydrate concentrations, on the regeneration of fertile plants from protoplast-denved colonies of several indica (IR43, Jaya, Pusa Basmati 1) and japonica (Taipei 309) rice varieties. Three japonica rice varieties with high eating quality, Longdao 18 (LD18), Longdao 20 (LD20) and Longdao 30 (LD30), were released in Heilongjiang Province of China recently. japonica rice, respectively. Japonica rice (O. sativa subsp. Genetic diversity and the relationship among nine japonica rice groups consisting of 288 landraces and varieties in different geographical origins of Northeast Asia (China, Japan, Korea, Democratic People's Republic of Korea) and the Russian Far East district of the Russian Federation were evaluated with 154 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. indica) and Nipponbare (Oryza sativa L. ssp. Rice varieties are often classified into different groups on the basis of morphological, geographic, and quality variations, which are discussed in the succeeding text. The elongation rates of TN14, KH139, and TK9 increased significantly during submergence. R ice cultivars have been developed for thousands of years in Asia. In Taiwan, seedlings that are planted either by transplanting or direct seeding in the second crop will face the season with the highest temperatures during the year. Indica grains shatter more easily and have 23-31% amylose content. for japonica rice because of its climate and locally developed strains of japonica varieties that have qualities similar to those grown in Japan . In recent years, typhoons and sudden downpours have caused field flooding, which has resulted in serious harm to the production of rice. Furthermore, insect survival rates were the lowest on the PYL-BPH6 + BPH12 plants. It is found in the cooler zones of the subtropics and in the temperate zones. Two sequenced rice varieties, 93-11 (Oryza sativa L. ssp. Among more than 120 rice-producing countries, over 95% of them cultivate primarily indica varieties (Deng 2008; Fang 2005).Globally, only a few countries, such as China, Japan, South Korea, United States, Australia, and Egypt, produce and export japonica rice (Deng 2008).The japonica varieties occupy 8.8% of the rice farming area and are responsible for 14.2% of total rice production … Wild rice. From 2007 to 2015, the total amount of rice traded on international markets in-creased from 32 million tons to 41.67 million tons, while Nine japonica rice varieties were subjected to 35.0, 37.5 or 40.0°C day- temperature conditions (1000-1600) for six consecutive days using sun-lit phytotrons, and the percentage of fertility, pollination and germinated pollen grains on the stigmas were examined. Japonica is one of the two major eco-geographical races of O. sativa (O. sativa japonica), the other is Indica. japonica), sometimes called sinica rice, is one of the two major domestic varieties of Asian rice.Japonica rice is extensively cultivated and consumed in China, Japan, and Korea, whereas in most other regions indica rice  is the dominant type of rice. Several protocols have been developed and fine-tuned for particular genotypes, including commercial genotypes, ... Japonica rice varieties (Oryza sativa, Nipponbare, and others) Japonica varieties produced higher number of tillers/m2, dry weight (t/ha), LAI, number of panicles/m2, ripening ratios and lower Japonica Rice. Japonica Cooked grains are slightly chewy with a subtle sweet spiciness. These results demonstrated that pyramiding different BPH-resistance genes resulted in stronger antixenotic and antibiotic effects on the BPH insects. Abstract. indica and japonica perform different characteristics . Rice Varieties. Previous studies have shown that indica and japonica varieties varied in machine transplanting efficiency and optimal seeding density. In general, japonica varieties are known to have relatively low yield potential comparing to indica varieties. 1. To understand the genetic diversity and indica-japonica differentiation in Bangladesh rice varieties, a total of 151 accessions of rice varieties mostly Bangladesh traditional varieties including Aus, Boro, broadcast Aman, transplant Aman and Rayada varietal groups were genotyped using 47 rice nuclear SSRs. In japonica inbred and hybrid rice varieties, we found that only high panicle number per unit area and long growth period led to high grain yield. In Japan japonica rice is further categorised as uruchimai (ordinary rice) and mochigome (glutinous rice). While yields are generally high in these areas, the rice types must be further improved for yield potential and resistance to insects and diseases as well as for environmental stress tolerance, especially cold. However, constant breeding efforts led to development of temperate japonica varieties adapted to tropical/subtropical regions, but the genetic factor underlying this is still elusive. Japonica Rice. japonica Kato) germplasm resources with different nitrogen (N) efficiency levels is effective for improving N use efficiency (NUE) while reducing pollution and providing high quality, yield, and efficiency agriculture.We investigated 14 indices of 38 varieties under three N application levels to assess differences among genotypes.